Velocity = V
V = distance/time
Force = F = m * a
m = mass
a = acceleration
Kinetic energy is represented by Ek
Ek = 1/2 (mass)(velocity)^2
Speed is more important than mass
Solar Mass / Lunar Mass / Earth Mass / Jupiter Mass
The following formulas are very useful in comprehending masses throughout our universe:
Solar Mass = (1.98855+/-0.00025) x 10^80 kg (2 nonilion kilograms)
Lunar Mass Ml = 27,068,510
Earth Mass Me = 332,946
Jupiter Mass Mj = 1,047.56
Isaac Newton’s Laws of Motion
Newton’s laws of motion are three physical laws that, together, laid the foundation for classical mechanics. They describe the relationship between a body and the forces acting upon it, and its motion in response to those forces. They have been expressed in several different ways, over nearly three centuries, and can be summarized as follows.
First law: When viewed in an inertial reference frame, an object either remains at rest or continues to move at a constant velocity, unless acted upon by a net force
Second law: In an inertial reference frame, the vector sum of the forces F on an object is equal to the mass m of that object multiplied by the acceleration vector a of the object: F = ma.
Third law: When one body exerts a force on a second body, the second body simultaneously exerts a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction on the first body.
What is the Drake Equation?
N = R* fp ne fl fi fc L
N = The number of communicative civilizations
R* = The rate of formation of suitable stars (stars such as our Sun)
fp = The fraction of those stars with planets. (Current evidence indicates that planetary systems may be common for stars like the Sun.)
ne = The number of Earth-like worlds per planetary system
fl = The fraction of those Earth-like planets where life actually develops
fi = The fraction of life sites where intelligence develops
fc = The fraction of communicative planets (those on which electromagnetic communications technology develops)
L = The “lifetime” of communicating civilizations
Frank Drake’s own current solution to the Drake Equation estimates 10,000 communicative civilizations in the Milky Way. Dr. Drake, who serves on the SETI League’s advisory board, has personally endorsed SETI’s planned all-sky survey.
(from QST, August 1995, page 38)